Chris Sampson’s journal round-up for 4th December 2017

Every Monday our authors provide a round-up of some of the most recently published peer reviewed articles from the field. We don’t cover everything, or even what’s most important – just a few papers that have interested the author. Visit our Resources page for links to more journals or follow the HealthEconBot. If you’d like to write one of our weekly journal round-ups, get in touch.

Funding breakthrough therapies: a systematic review and recommendation. Health Policy Published 2nd December 2017

One of the (numerous) financial pressures on health care funders in the West is the introduction of innovative (and generally very expensive) new therapies. Some of these can be considered curative, which isn’t necessarily the best way for manufacturers to create a steady income. New funding arrangements have been proposed to facilitate patient access while maintaining financial sustainability. This article focuses on a specific group of innovative therapies known as ‘Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products’ (ATMPs), which includes gene therapies. The authors conducted a systematic review of papers proposing funding models and considered their appropriateness for ATMPs. There were 48 papers included in the review that proposed payment mechanisms for high-cost therapies. Three top-level groups were identified: i) financial agreements, ii) performance-based agreements, and iii) healthcoin (a tradable currency representing the value of outcomes). The different mechanisms are compared in terms of their feasibility, acceptability, burden, ‘financial attractiveness’ and their appeal to payers and manufacturers. Annuity payments are identified as relatively attractive compared to other options, but each mechanism is summarily shown to be imperfect in the ATMP context. So, instead, the authors propose an ATMP-specific fund. For UK readers, this will likely smell a bit too much like the disastrous Cancer Drugs Fund. It isn’t clear why such a programme would be superior to annuity payments or more inventive mechanisms, or even whether it would be theoretically sound. Thus, the proposal is not convincing.

Supply-side effects from public insurance expansions: evidence from physician labor markets. Health Economics [PubMed] Published 1st December 2017

Crazy though American health care may be, its inconsistency in coverage can make for good research fodder. The Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was set up in 1997 and then, when the initial money ran out 10 years later, the program was (eventually) expanded. In this study, the authors use the changes in CHIP to examine the impact of expanded public coverage on provider behaviour, namely; subspecialty training (which could become more attractive with a well-insured customer base), practice setting and prevailing wage offers. The data for the study relate to the physician labour market for New York state for 2002-2013, as collected in the Graduate Medical Education survey. A simple difference-in-differences analysis is conducted with reference to the 2009 CHIP expansion, controlling for physician demographics. Paediatricians are the treatment group and the control group is adult physician generalists (mostly internal medicine). 2009 seems to be associated with a step-change in the proportion of paediatricians choosing to subspecialise – an increased probability of about 8 percentage points. There is also an upward shift in the proportion of paediatricians entering private practice, with some (weak) evidence that there is an increased preference for rural areas. These changes don’t seem to be driven by relative wage increases, with no major change in trends. So it seems that the expanded coverage did have important supply-side effects. But the waters are muddy here. In particular, we have the Great Recession and Obamacare as possible alternative explanations. Though it’s difficult to come up with good reasons for why these might better explain the observed changes.

Reflections on the NICE decision to reject patient production losses. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care [PubMedPublished 20th November 2017

When people conduct economic evaluations ‘from a societal perspective’, this often just means a health service perspective with productivity losses added. NICE explicitly exclude the inclusion of these production losses in health technology appraisals. This paper reviews the issues at play, focussing on the normative question of why they should (or should not) be included. Findings from a literature review are summarised with reference to the ethical, theoretical and policy questions. Unethical discrimination potentially occurs if people are denied health care on the basis of non-health-related characteristics, such as the ability to work. All else equal, should health care for men be prioritised over health care for women because men have higher wages? Are the unemployed less of a priority because they’re unemployed? The only basis on which to defend the efficiency of an approach that includes productivity losses seems to be a neoclassical welfarist one, which is hardly tenable in the context of health care. If we adopt the extra-welfarist understanding of opportunity cost as foregone health then there is really no place for production losses. The authors also argue that including production losses may be at odds with policy objectives, at least in the context of the NHS in the UK. Health systems based on privately-funded care or social insurance may have different priorities. The article concludes that taking account of production losses is at odds with the goal of health maximisation and therefore the purpose of the NHS in the UK. Personally, I think priority setting in health care should take a narrow health perspective. So I agree with the authors that production losses shouldn’t be included. I’m not sure this article will convince those who disagree, but it’s good to have a reference to vindicate NICE’s position.

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Variations in NHS admissions at a glance

Variations in admissions to NHS hospitals are the source of a great deal of consternation. Over the long-run, admissions and the volume of activity required of the NHS have increased, without equivalent increases in funding or productivity. Over the course of the year, there are repeated claims of crises as hospitals are ill-equipped for the increase in demand in the winter. While different patterns of admissions at weekends relative to weekdays may be the foundation of the ‘weekend effect’ as we recently demonstrated. And yet all these different sources of variation produce a singular time series of numbers of daily admissions. But, each of the different sources of variation are important for different planning and research aims. So let’s decompose the daily number of admissions into its various components.

Data

Daily number of emergency admissions to NHS hospitals between April 2007 and March 2015 from Hospital Episode Statistics.

Methods

A similar analysis was first conducted on variations in the number of births by day of the year. A full description of the model can be found in Chapter 21 of the textbook Bayesian Data Analysis (indeed the model is shown on the front cover!). The model is a sum of Gaussian processes, each one modelling a different aspect of the data, such as the long-run trend or weekly periodic variation. We have previously used Gaussian processes in a geostatistical model on this blog. Gaussian processes are a flexible class of models for which any finite dimensional marginal distribution is Gaussian. Different covariance functions can be specified for different models, such as the aforementioned periodic or long-run trends. The model was run using the software GPstuff in Octave (basically an open-source version of Matlab) and we have modified code from the GPstuff website.

Results

admit5-1

The four panels of the figure reveal to us things we may claim to already know. Emergency admissions have been increasing over time and were about 15% higher in 2015 than in 2007 (top panel). The second panel shows us the day of the week effects: there are about 20% fewer admissions on a Saturday or Sunday than on a weekday. The third panel shows a decrease in summer and increase in winter as we often see reported, although perhaps not quite as large as we might have expected. And finally the bottom panel shows the effects of different days of the year. We should note that the large dip at the end of March/beginning of April is an artifact of coding at the end of the financial year in HES and not an actual drop in admissions. But, we do see expected drops for public holidays such as Christmas and the August bank holiday.

While none of this is unexpected it does show that there’s a lot going on underneath the aggregate data. Perhaps the most alarming aspect of the data is the long run increase in emergency admissions when we compare it to the (lack of) change in funding or productivity. It suggests that hospitals will often be running at capacity so other variation, such as over winter, may lead to an excess capacity problem. We might also speculate on other possible ‘weekend effects’, such as admission on a bank holiday.

As a final thought, the method used to model the data is an excellent way of modelling data with an unknown structure without posing assumptions such as linearity that might be too strong. Hence their use in geostatistics. They are widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence as well. We often encounter data with unknown and potentially complicated structures in health care and public health research so hopefully this will serve as a good advert for some new methods. See this book, or the one referenced in the methods section, for an in depth look.

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Alastair Canaway’s journal round-up for 31st October 2016

Every Monday our authors provide a round-up of some of the most recently published peer reviewed articles from the field. We don’t cover everything, or even what’s most important – just a few papers that have interested the author. Visit our Resources page for links to more journals or follow the HealthEconBot. If you’d like to write one of our weekly journal round-ups, get in touch.

Ethical hurdles in the prioritization of oncology care. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy [PubMedPublished 21st October 2016

Recently between health economists, there has been significant scrutiny and disquiet directed towards the Cancer Drugs Fund with Professor Karl Claxton describing it as “an appalling, unfair use of NHS resources”. With the latest reorganization of the Cancer Drugs Fund in mind, this article examining the ethical issues surrounding prioritisation of cancer care was of particular interest. As all health economists will tell you, there is an opportunity cost with any allocation of scarce resources. Likewise, with prioritisation of specific disease groups, there may be equity issues with specific patients’ lives essentially being valued more greatly than those suffering other conditions. This article conducts a systematic review of the oncology literature to examine the ethical issues surrounding inequity in healthcare. The review found that public and political attention often focuses on ‘availability’ of pharmacological treatment in addition to factors that lead to good outcomes. The public and political focus on availability can have perverse consequences as highlighted by the Cancer Drugs Fund: resources are diverted towards availability and away from other more cost-effective areas, and in turn this may have had a detrimental effect on care for non-cancer patients. Additionally, by approving high cost, less cost-effective agents, strain will be placed upon health budgets and causing problems for existing cost-effectiveness thresholds. If prioritisation for cancer drugs is to be pursued then the authors suggest that the question of how to fund new therapies equitably will need to be addressed. Although the above issues will not be new to most, the paper is still worth reading as it: i) gives an overview of the different prioritisation frameworks used across Europe, ii) provides several suggestions for how, if prioritization is to be pursued, it can be done in a fairer manner rather than simply overriding typical HTA decision processes, iii) considers the potential legal consequences of prioritisation and iv) the impact of prioritisation on the sustainability of healthcare funding.

Doctor-patient differences in risk and time preferences: a field experiment. Journal of Health Economics Published 19th October 2016

The patient-doctor agency interaction, and associated issues due to asymmetrical information is something that was discussed often during my health economics MSc, but rarely during my day to day work. Despite being very familiar with supplier induced demand, differences in risk and time preferences in the patient-doctor dyad wasn’t something I’d considered in recent times. Upon reading, immediately, it is clear that if risk and time preferences do differ, then what is seen as the optimal treatment for the patient may be very different to that of the doctor. This may lead to poorer adherence to treatments and worse outcomes. This paper sought to investigate whether patients and their doctors had similar time and risk preferences using a framed field experiment with 300 patients and 67 doctors in Athens, Greece in a natural clinical setting. The authors claim to be the first to attempt this, and have three main findings: i) there were significant time preference differences between the patients and doctors – doctors discounted future health gains and financial outcomes less heavily than patients; ii) there were no significant differences in risk preferences for health with both doctors and patients being mildly risk averse; iii) there were however risk preference differences for financial impacts with doctors being more risk averse than patients. The implication of this paper is that there is potential for improvements in doctor-patient communication for treatments, and as agents for patients, doctors should attempts to gauge their patient’s preferences and attitudes before recommending treatment. For those who heavily discount the future it may be preferable to provide care that increases the short term benefits.

Hospital productivity growth in the English NHS 2008/09 to 2013/14 [PDF]. Centre for Health Economics Research Paper [RePEcPublished 21st October 2016

Although this is technically a ‘journal round-up’, this week I’ve chosen to include the latest CHE report as I think it is something which may be of wider interest to the AHEBlog community. Given limited resources, there is an unerring call for both productivity and efficiency gains within the NHS. The CHE report examines the extent to which NHS hospitals have improved productivity: have they made better use of their resources by increasing the number of patients they treat and the services they deliver for the same or fewer inputs. To assess productivity, the report uses established methods: Total Factor Productivity (TFP) which is the ratio of all outputs to all inputs. Growth in TFP is seen as being key to improving patient care with limited resources. The primary report finding was that TFP growth at the trust level exhibits ‘extraordinary volatility’. For example one year there maybe TFP growth followed by negative growth the next year, and then positive growth. The authors assert that much of the TFP growth measured is in fact implausible, and much of the changes are driven largely by nominal effects alongside some real changes. These nominal effects may be data entry errors or changes in accounting practices and data recording processes which results in changes to the timing of the recording of outputs and inputs. This is an important finding for research assessing productivity growth within the NHS. The TFP approach is an established methodology, yet as this research demonstrates, such methods do not provide credible measures of productivity at the hospital level. If hospital level productivity growth is to be measured credibly, then a new methodology will be required.

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