Chris Sampson’s journal round-up for 13th March 2017

Every Monday our authors provide a round-up of some of the most recently published peer reviewed articles from the field. We don’t cover everything, or even what’s most important – just a few papers that have interested the author. Visit our Resources page for links to more journals or follow the HealthEconBot. If you’d like to write one of our weekly journal round-ups, get in touch.

The effects of exercise and relaxation on health and wellbeing. Health Economics [PubMedPublished 9th Month 2017

Encouraging self-management of health sounds like a good idea, but the evidence is pretty weak. As economists, we know that something must be displaced in order to do it. This study considers the opportunity cost of time and how it might affect self-management activity and any associated benefits. Employment and education are likely to increase income and thus facilitate more expenditure on exercise. But the time cost of exercise is also likely to increase, meaning that the impact on demand is ambiguous. The study uses data from a trial of self-management support that included people with diabetes, COPD or IBS. EQ-5D, self-assessed health and the amount of time spent ‘being happy’ were all collected. Information was available for 12 different self-management activities, including ‘do exercises’ and ‘rest and relax’, and the extent to which individuals did these. Outcomes for 3,472 people at 12-month follow-up are estimated, controlling for outcomes at baseline and 6 months. The study assumes that employment and education affect health via their influence on exercise and relaxation. That seems a bit questionable and the other 10 self-management indicators could have been looked at to test this. People in full-time employment were 11 percentage points less likely to use relaxation to manage their condition, suggesting that the substitution effect on time dominates as the opportunity cost of self-management increases. Having a degree or professional qualification increased the probability of using exercise by 5 percentage points, suggesting that the income effect dominates. Those who are more likely to use either exercise or relaxation are also more likely to do the other. An interesting suggestion is that time preference might explain things here. Those with more education may prefer to exercise (as an investment) than to get the instant gratification of rest and relaxation. It’s important that policy recommendations take into consideration the fact that different groups will respond differently to incentives for self-management, at least partly due to their differing time constraints. The thing I find most interesting is the analysis of the different outcomes (something I’ve worked on). Exercise is found to improve self-assessed health, while relaxation increases happiness. Neither exercise or relaxation had a (statistically significant) effect on EQ-5D. Depending on your perspective, this either suggests that the EQ-5D is failing to identify important changes in broad health-related domains or it means that self-management does not achieve the goals (QALYs to the max) of the health service.

New findings from the time trade-off for income approach to elicit willingness to pay for a quality adjusted life year. The European Journal of Health Economics [PubMedPublished 8th March 2017

The question ‘what is a QALY worth’ could invoke any number of reactions in a health economist, from chin scratching to eye rolling. The perspective that we’re probably most familiar with in the UK is that the value of a QALY is the value of health foregone in order to achieve it (i.e. opportunity cost within the health care perspective). An alternative perspective is that the value of a QALY is the consumption value of health; how much consumption would individuals be willing to give up in order to obtain an additional QALY? This second perspective facilitates a broader societal perspective. It can tell us whether or not the budget is set at an appropriate level, while the health care perspective can only take the budget as given. This study relates mainly to decisions made with the ‘consumption value’ perspective. One approach that has been proposed is to assess willingness to pay for a QALY using a time trade-off exercise that incorporates trade-offs between length and quality of life and income. This study builds on the original work by using a multiplicative utility function to estimate willingness to pay and also bringing in prospect theory to allow for reference dependence and loss aversion. 550 participants were asked to choose between living 10 years in their current health state with their current salary or to live a reduced number of years in their current health state with a luxury income (pre-specified by the participant). Respondents were also asked to make a similar choice, but framed as a loss of income, between living 10 years at a subsistence income or fewer years with their current income. A quality of life trade-off exercise was also conducted, in which people traded reduced health and a lower income. The findings support the predictions of prospect theory. Loss aversion is found to be stronger for duration than for quality of life. Individuals were more willing to sacrifice life years to move from subsistence income to current income than to move from current income to luxury income. The results imply that quality of life and income are closer substitutes than longevity and income. That makes sense, given the all-or-nothing nature of being alive. Crucially, the findings highlight the need to better understand the shape of the underlying lifetime utility function. In all tasks, more than half of respondents were either non-traders or over-traded, indicating a negative willingness to pay. That should give pause for thought when it comes to any aggregation of the results. Willingness to pay studies often throw up more questions than answers. This one does so more than most, particularly about sources of bias in people’s responses. The authors identify plenty of opportunities for future research.

Beyond QALYs: multi-criteria based estimation of maximum willingness to pay for health technologies. The European Journal of Health Economics [PubMed] Published 3rd March 2017

Life is messy. Evaluating things in terms of a single outcome, whether that be QALYs, £££s or whatever, is necessarily simplifying and restrictive. That’s not necessarily a bad thing, but we’d do well to bear it in mind. In this paper, Erik Nord sets out a kind of cost value analysis that does away with QALYs (gasp!). The author starts by outlining some familiar criticisms of the QALY approach, such as its failure to consider the inherent value of life and people’s differing reference points. Generally, I see these as features rather than bugs, and it isn’t QALYs themselves in the crosshairs here so much as cost-per-QALY analysis. The proposed method flips current practice by putting societal preferences about fair and efficient resource allocation before attaching values to the outcomes. As such, it acknowledges the fact that society’s preferences for gains in quality of life differ from those for gains in length of life. For example, society may prefer treating the more severely ill (independent of age) but also exhibit a ‘fair innings’ preference that is related to age. Thus, quality and quantity of life are disaggregated and the QALY is no more. A set of tables is presented that can be read to assess ‘value’ in alternative scenarios, given the assumptions set out in the paper. There is merit in the approach and a lot that I like about the possibilities of its use. But for me, the whole thing was made less attractive by the way it is presented in the paper. The author touts willingness to pay – for quality of life gains and for longevity gains – as the basis for value. Anything that makes resource allocation more dependent on willingness to pay values for things without a price (health, life) is a big no-no for me. But the method doesn’t depend on that. Furthermore, as is so often the case, most of the criticisms within relate to ways of using QALYs, rather than the fundamental basis for their estimation. This only weakens the argument for an alternative. But I can think of plenty of problems with QALYs, some of which might be addressed by this alternative approach. It’s unfortunate that the paper doesn’t outline how these more fundamental problems might be addressed. There may come a day when we do away with QALYs, and we may end up doing something similar to what’s outlined here, but we need to think harder about how this alternative is really better.

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Well-being and gross national happiness for policy

In the early years of the coalition government, David Cameron lauded the measurement of happiness and well-being as an indicator of national performance. Data on life satisfaction have been collected and published by the Office for National Statistics every year since 2012. Despite this, very little is said about well-being. It is not discussed at spending or policy reviews and rarely in the media. Gross domestic product (GDP) continues to dominate the coverage of national performance and the potential impact of policies such as Brexit. Nevertheless, a precursory glance at the data can reveal an interesting picture of national well-being.

happy

Proportion of respondents reporting their life satisfaction to be ‘high’ or ‘very high’. [Data source: ONS; .csv data; R code]

The map above plots the proportion of people reporting their life satisfaction to be ‘high’ or ‘very high’ across England and Wales. This corresponds to a score of seven or more on a ten point scale in response to the question:

Overall, how satisfied are you with your life nowadays? Where 0 is ‘not at all satisfied’ and 10 is ‘completely satisfied’.

There are clearly variations across the country, with the most obvious being the urban/rural divide. The proportion of people reporting ‘high’ or ‘very high’ life satisfaction in the UK has also increased over time, from 76.1% to 81.2% between 2012/3 and 2015/6, corresponding to a mean life satisfaction rating rising from 7.42 to 7.65.

Well-being data can also be used to evaluate the impact of policies or interventions in a cost-benefit analysis. Typically an in-depth analysis may model the impact of a policy on household incomes. But, these changes in income are only valuable insofar as they are instrumental for changes in well-being or welfare. Hence the attraction of well-being data. To derive a monetary valuation of a change in life satisfaction economists consider either compensating surplus or equivalent surplus. The former is the amount of money that someone would need to pay or receive to return them to their initial welfare position following a change in life satisfaction; the latter is the amount they would need to move them to their subsequent welfare position in the absence of a change. For example, to estimate the compensating surplus for a change in life satisfaction, one could estimate the effect of an exogenous change in income on life satisfaction. Such an exogenous change could be a lottery win, which is exactly the approach used in this report valuing the benefits of cultural and sports events like the Olympics.

Health economists have been one of the pioneering groups in the development and valuation of measures of non-monetary benefits. The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) being a prime example. However, a common criticism of these measures is that they only capture health related quality of life, and are fairly insensitive to changes in other areas of well-being. As a result there have been a growing number of broader measures of well-being, such as WEMWBS, that can be used as well as the generic life satisfaction measures discussed above. Broader measures may be able to capture some of the effects of health care policies that QALYs do not. For example, centralisation of healthcare services increases travel time and time away from home for many relatives and carers; reduced staff to patient ratios and consultation time can impact on process of care and staff-patient relationships; or, other barriers to care, such as language difficulties, may cause distress and dissatisfaction.

There are clearly good arguments for the use of broad life satisfaction and well-being instruments and sound methods to value them. One of the major barriers to their adoption is a lack of good data. The other barrier is likely to be the political willingness to accept them as measures of national performance and policy impact.

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Meeting round-up: Priorities 2016

This was my first experience of the biennial conference organised by the International Society on Priorities in Health Care. The society was founded in 1996 at the University of Birmingham in the UK and returned to its spiritual home 20 years on. As well as bringing bioethicists, philosophers, economists, health care practitioners and patient advocates together, the conference also saw the combined wits of the Health Service Management Centre (HSMC) and the Health Economics Unit (HEU), co-chaired by Iestyn Williams and Joanna Coast (now at Bristol), who organised a very insightful programme that stimulated plenty of debate between attendants.

After a recent bad experience of plenary talks, Priorities 2016 managed to return my faith in the power of good plenary sessions. The opening session of the conference by Angela Coulter, Rachel Baker and Sally Brearley, focusing on the application and practicalities of incorporating patient views into healthcare decision-making, set the tone for high quality presentations over the three days. Although impossible to summarise all the relevant contributions made with simultaneous sessions throughout, I will focus on my highlights.

Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is something that has been gaining a lot of attention in health economics, so I jumped at the chance to learn more from some of the key names involved in its use and development. I was slightly surprised then to hear Rob Baltussen make a convincing argument why going beyond the quantification of more than two criteria is likely to muddle more than help decision-making. Instead, he made an argument for a deliberate form of MCDA when presenting decision makers with more than two criteria, sounding somewhat similar to a cost consequence analysis in health economics. This deliberative form of MCDA was also argued to align more closely with Norman Daniels’s accountability for reasonableness priority setting ethical framework.

There were numerous relevant health economics talks of interest. In terms of commissioning health services in England, there was an organised session led by Hugh McLeod on a new project starting in Gloucestershire Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG), who are planning to trial the use of the ICECAP capability measure to aid their decision-making. At the same time of this talk, there was also a Health Foundation sponsored session on how to set priorities across the NHS, with speakers including Cam Donaldson and Muir Gray. By many accounts, it was the highlight of the conference for those who attended.

Other notable health economics sessions looked at how benefits are measured, with Lidia Engel presenting twice from her PhD research, including a helpful conceptual map of the multiple options available when considering how going beyond the quality adjusted life year (QALY) could be operationalised in practice. Yvonne Michel looked at issues in asking patients with spinal cord injury about their mobility in terms of walking, a common feature in health measures used in the generation of QALYs. My talk on how capabilities could be an appropriate evaluative space in renal care also took place in this lively session.

Another session with an economic evaluation focus included a talk by Hareth Al-Janabi on his research looking at incorporating health spillover effects on the family from children with health conditions, with his example drawing from data on children with meningitis in the UK. Lars Schwettmann discussed inconsistencies in the willingness to pay for QALYs in the German sample of the EuroVaQ project. Joseph Millum discussed his attempts to place different values on the disutility of death at different ages of childhood, prompting the largest proportion of hands raised by those in attendance following a presentation that I have seen. There was also a talk from three US-based researchers who presented a systematic review for looking at how social justice could be incorporated into an economic evaluation. This session was chaired by Stirling Bryan, who had previously discussed his recently published paper in Medical Decision Making with Graham Scotland at the conference, on the search for efficiency in current health care provision versus the current focus of the majority of most health economic analysis on new interventions.

It was also a good conference in terms of getting international perspectives on how health economics is used to aid priority setting in different countries. Key debates included the use of health/QALY maximisation alone, versus how it is combined with equity concerns around absolute shortfall as implemented in Norway, presented by Trygve Ottersen and proportional shortfall as implemented in the Netherlands, presented by Werner Brouwer. Another interesting development is the use of income as an equity consideration to be incorporated alongside the health outcome in economic analysis, with Ole Norheim and Richard Cookson working on this new area of research.

The above is only a microcosm of the Priorities 2016 conference through the perspective of one attendant. I would highly recommend keeping your eyes peeled for when this conference comes around again in 2018. It may not have had health economics in the title, but I would highly recommend health economists to attend and share their experience with others in related areas of research and practice at this very worthwhile meeting.