Every Monday our authors provide a round-up of some of the most recently published peer reviewed articles from the field. We don’t cover everything, or even what’s most important – just a few papers that have interested the author. Visit our Resources page for links to more journals or follow the HealthEconBot. If you’d like to write one of our weekly journal round-ups, get in touch.
Consensus-based cross-European recommendations for the identification, measurement and valuation of costs in health economic evaluations: a European Delphi study. European Journal of Health Economics [PubMed] Published 19th December 2017
The primary aim of this study was to develop guidelines for costing in economic evaluation studies conducted across more than one European country. The starting point of the societal perspective as the benchmark for costing was not entirely obvious from the abstract, where this broadest approach to costing is not recommended uniformly across all European countries. Recommendations following this starting point looked at the identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, discount rate and discounting of future costs. A three-step Delphi study was used to gain consensus on what should be included in an economic evaluation from a societal perspective, based initially on findings from a review of costing methodologies adopted across European country-specific guidelines. Consensus required at least two thirds (67%) agreement across those participating in the Delphi study at all 3 stages. Where no agreement was reached after the three stages, a panel of four of the co-authors made a final decision on what should be recommended. In total, 26 of the 110 invited to participate completed at least one Delphi round, with all Delphi rounds having at least 16 participants. It remains unclear to me if 16 for a Delphi round is sufficient to reach a European wide consensus on costing methodologies. There were a number of key areas where no consensus was reached (e.g. including costs unrelated to the intervention, measurement of resource use and absenteeism, and valuation of opportunity costs of patient time and informal care), so the four-strong author panel had a leading role on some of the main recommendations. Notwithstanding the limitations associated with the reference perspective taken and sample for the Delphi study and panel, the paper provides a useful illustration of the different approaches to costing across European countries. It also provides a good coverage of costing issues that need to be explained in detail in economic evaluations to allow for clear understanding of methods used and the underpinning rationale for those decisions where a choice is required on the costing methodology applied.
A (five-)level playing field for mental health conditions?: exploratory analysis of EQ-5D-5L derived utility values. Quality of Life Research [PubMed] Published 16th December 2017
The UK health economics community has been reeling from the decision made earlier this year by UK guidelines developer, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), who recommended to not adopt the new population values developed for the EQ-5D-5L version when calculating QALYs and instead rely on a crosswalk of the values developed over 20 years ago for the 3 level EQ-5D version. This paper provides a timely comparison of how these two value sets perform for the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system in patient groups with mental health conditions, groups often thought to be disadvantaged by the physical health functioning focus of the EQ-5D descriptive system. Using baseline data from three trials, the authors find that the new utility values produce a higher mean EQ-5D score of 0.08 compared to the old crosswalk values, with a 0.225 difference for those reporting extreme problems with the anxiety/depression dimension on EQ-5D. Although, the authors of this study highlight using these new values would increase cost per QALY results in this sample using scenario analysis, when improvements are in the depression/anxiety category only, such improvements are relatively better than across the whole EQ-5D-5L descriptive system due to the relative additional value placed on the anxiety/depression dimension in the new values. This paper makes for interesting reading and one that NICE should take into consideration when reviewing their decision on this issue next year. Although I would disagree with the authors when they state that this study would be a primary reason for revising the NICE cost-effectiveness threshold (more compelling arguments for this elsewhere in my view), it does clearly highlight the influence of the choice of descriptive system and the values used in the outcomes produced for economic analysis such as QALYs, even when the two descriptive systems in question (EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L) are roughly the same.
What characteristics of nursing homes are most valued by customers? A discrete choice experiment with residents and family members. Value in Health Published 1st December 2017
Our final paper for review in 2017 looks at the characteristics that are of most importance to individuals and their family members when it comes to nursing home provision. The authors conducted a valuation exercise using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to calculate the relative importance of the attributes contained on the Consumer Choice Index-Six Dimension (CCI-6D), a measure developed to assess the quality of nursing home care across 3 levels on six domains: 1. level of time care staff spent with residents; 2. homeliness of shared spaces; 3. homeliness of room setup; 4. access to outside and garden; 5. frequency of meaningful activities; and 6. flexibility with care routines. Those who lived in a nursing home for at least a year with low levels of cognitive impairment completed the DCE themselves, whereas family members were asked to proxy for their close relative with more severe cognitive impairment. 126 residents and 416 family member proxies completed the DCE comparisons of nursing homes with different qualities in these six areas. The results of the DCE show differences in preferences across the two groups. Although similar importance is placed on some dimensions across both groups (i.e. “homeliness of room set up” ranked highly, whereas “frequency of meaningful activities” ranked lower), residents value access to outside and garden four times as much as the family proxies do (second most important dimension for residents, lowest for family proxies), family members value level of time care staff spent with residents twice as much as residents themselves (most important attribute for family proxies, third most important for residents). Although residents in both groups may have important differences in characteristics that might explain some of this difference, it is probably a good time of year to remember family preferences may be inconsistent with individuals within them, so make sure to take account of this variation when preparing those Christmas dinners.
Happy holidays all.